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Goals and objectives


Developing Measurable GoalsSometimes the goals can be referred to as SMART goals:
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Achievable
  • Relevant
  • Time Limited
Written goals will describe what the child will do, when and how he'll do it and what the time frame will be for achieving it.
Present Levels and Benchmarks

What does the student currently do?
  • Describe the behavior or skill in observable terms

What is the “need”
What standard (state, developmental) is it related to?

What dimension of the skill/behavior are you trying to quantify the skill/behavior?
  • Identify type of procedure to collect baseline data (i.e. frequency count, writing prompt, fluency probe etc.).



Developing Measurable Goals


What do you expect the student to do at the end of your time with student?
What standard ( state, developmental) is it related to?
  • Describe behavior/skill in observable terms.

What level do you expect the student to achieve at the end of the cycle?
  • Describe in quantifiable terms. i.e. time, % level, etc.

What conditions must be present for the student to perform at this level?
  • Describe level or support if necessary

Measuring Progress
How will progress toward meeting the goal be measured?

  • Describe tool/procedures to be used

  • Describe how often it will be done

  • Identify where the data will be collected ( form)

Developing Measurable Goals

Case Study examplePresent Levels and Benchmarks

What does the student currently do?
  • Describe the behavior or skill in observable terms
N has a tendency to use unspecific words when describing and/or requesting objects during therapy.
What is the “need”
What standard (state, developmental) is it related to?
Mean Length of Utterance should be 4 words with the use of color words, labels, verbs and some prepositions in his sentences
What dimension of the skill/behavior are you trying to quantify the skill/behavior?
  • Identify type of procedure to collect baseline data (i.e. frequency count, writing prompt, fluency probe etc.).
.Using a language sample with baseline data a comparison will be made using the same activity
Developing Measurable Goals
What do you expect the student to do at the end of the IEP cycle?
What standard ( state, developmental) is it related to?
  • Describe behavior/skill in observable terms.
N will use 4 word sentences within a play activity to request specific objects or to describe what is happening.
What level do you expect the student to achieve at the end of the cycle?
  • Describe in quantifiable terms. i.e. time, % level, etc.
The average length of sentences will be 4 when taken from a sample of not less than 20 utterances.
What conditions must be present for the student to perform at this level?
  • Describe level or support if necessary
Given direct instruction in color words size words, verbs and nouns N will transfer the information when given a visual model
Measuring Progress
How will progress toward meeting the goal be measured?

  • Describe tool/procedures to be used
Language sample
  • Describe how often it will be done
Across three sessions
  • Identify where the data will be collected ( form)


Goal: By December N will increase his expressive language skills as evidenced by a language sample in which his Mean Length of Utterance is 4 and there is evidence of use of any combination of adjectives ( color and size etc) verbs and nouns.
  • Given direct instruction and us of games N will increase his use of a variety of verbs as evidence by his use of verbs in a describing a picture game
  • Given a picture N will increase his use of specific vocabulary ( size, color ) as evidence by his use of adjectives in a direct game with a visual cue


Here are some examples of goals and objectives

Goal: Articulation: By (date), (Name) will improve speech intelligibility by producing (targeted sounds) in (single words, phrases, sentences) in _ out oftrials with % accuracy as measured
Objectives (name) will say the (sound) combined with the long vowel sound with -----% accuracy.
Objective (name) will say the (sound) in single words with -----% accuracy
Objective (name) will say the (sound) in phrases with % accuracy Objective ( name) will say the (sound) in sen tences with % accuracy

Goal: Vocabulary and Concept development: By (IEP date) (Name) will be able to use grade appropriate vocabulary in retelling a story in
_of_ opportunities with _% accuracy as
measured by ___

http://www.wrightslaw.com/bks/feta2/ch12.ieps.pdf

Examples of some goals:
In 12 weeks Pat will increase her reading comprehension as measured by her ability to answer 10/12 questions when presented with visual representation of answers and asked to point.
In 12 weeks Pat will increase his attention, focus and learning behavior as evidenced by her ability to follow directions, keep hands calm and quiet with no more than 4 prompts throughout the session.
*In 12 weeks Pat will improve speech intelligibility by producing /l/ in initial position in single words, phrases, and sentences in 9 out of 10 trials.
*In 12 weeks Pat will increase her reading comprehension by being able to read a chapter or a short story and identify the the setting, main character(s) and the problem and the solution on a graphic organizer with 90% accuracy.

.By the end of this semester, Pat will improve speech intelligibility of /b/ in CV combinations when presented with visual and tactile cues 90% of the time.

2.By the end of the semester Pat will improve speech intelligibility by producing /d/ CV combinations in response to auditory, visual, and tactile cues in 9 out of 10 trials with 90% accuracy.

3.By the end of the semester Pat will improve speech intelligibility by producing /f/ CV combinations in response to auditory, visual, and tactile cues in 9 out of 10 trials with 90% accuracy.

4.By the end of the semester Pat will increase requesting by communicating by vocalizing, signing, or pointing to the picture “I want” and then to the object he wants with 90% accuracy.

5.By the end of the semester Pat will increase his labeling/identifying skills as evident by his production of colors and objects in response to visual and auditory cues in 90% of trials.

GOAL 1: By the end of the semester Pat will demonstrate improved intelligibility by increasing the accuracy with which she produces /l/ in initial position to 80% following a verbal/visual model during structured play tasks.

GOAL 2: By the end of the semester Pat will demonstrate improved intelligibility by increasing the accuracy with which she produces /b/ and /v/ (as voiced phonemes) in final position to 80% following a verbal/visual model during structured play tasks.

GOAL 3: By the end of the semester Pat will demonstrate improved expressive language as evidenced by her ability to use the words do/does and can at the beginning of questions 80% of the time given a verbal/visual model in the context of structured play.

GOAL 4: By the end of the semester Pat will demonstrate improved expressive language as evidenced by her ability to use definite and indefinite articles 80% of the time given a verbal/visual model in the context of structured play.

GOAL 5: By the end of the semester Pat will demonstrate improved pre-literacy skills as evidenced by her ability to independently name letters with 90% accuracy.

Goals This is a link to a very good bank of goals.Example::( For our purposes as we do short term treatment then you would want perhaps the objective to be the goal). So for example in the below goal you might say " In 12 weeks YB will increase reading accuracy and fluency as measured by his using punctuation to gain meaning in context of reading in 3 out of 4 sessions."


Reading Accuracy And Fluency
Annual Goal #6 _ will increase reading accuracy and fluency to _ (grade/proficiency level) as measured by
_ (running records, probe, anecdotal records, work samples, etc.)
Objective #1 Use beginning and ending consonants, vowel patterns and blends to predict unknown words.
Objective #2 Track words in a one-to-one voice/word match on familiar text.
Objective #3 Use framing to assist in decoding isolated letters or words.
Objective #4 Use punctuation to gain meaning in context of reading.
Objective #5 Read aloud accurately (90% to 100%) material from the grade level sample reading list.
to Objective #6 Use phonetic generalizations (e.g., sound-symbol relationships, blends, word families, affixes, and syllabication)
gain meaning from print.
Objective #7 Use a balance of the cueing strategies to construct meaning with new text (e.g., lettersound/graphophonemic,
context/semantic, language structure/syntax).


Prompt Hierarchy

Verbal Cueing Hierarcy
(Bain and Olswang 1994)


Level 1 ( Most Supportive)
Direct Model+ Elicitation Statement
(e.g. “Tell me, dog walk)
Level 2
Direct Model
( Dog walk)
Level 3
Indirect Model
(e.g. “See, the dog is walking. What is he doing?”
Level 4
Cloze or Sentence Completion
( e.g. Look! The dog is )
Level 5
Elicitation Question
(e.g. “What’s he doing)
Level 6 ( Least Supportive)
General Statement by Clinician
(e.g. “ Oh, look at this!)




Cue Levels
Level 1: General Prompts that bring a child’s attention to something in the book.
Level 2 Direct questions related to thoughts feeling, plans and predictions
Level 3 Cloze
Level 4 A direct statement by the clinician to summarize events or highlight a specific connection/ relationship in the story.


SAMPLE GOALS:

Goal:By the end of the semester, PATRICIA will improve reading comprehension as evidenced by identifying the main idea and 4 supporting details in a reading passage when using a graphic organizer in 80% of trials[[file:///C:/Users/Patricia/AppData/Local/Microsoft/Windows/Temporary Internet Files/Content.Outlook/486IMB2B/NT_Plan_6-10-11.doc#_msocom_1|[P1]]] .
Another thing that was in the last link that I said is to look at the level of learning and where you are. Some of you are jumping to the end point without looking at where your child is at.



http://www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/time_savers/bloom/



Look at this in relationship to what level the child is at. It has the ‘verbs’ that you should be looking at.



http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm

Remembering: can the student recall or remember the information?
define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce state
Understanding: can the student explain ideas or concepts?
classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase
Applying: can the student use the information in a new way?
choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write.
Analyzing: can the student distinguish between the different parts?
appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test.
Evaluating: can the student justify a stand or decision?
appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate
Creating: can the student create new product or point of view?
assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write.





Use these words to help create your goals.



If you are first introducing a topic you might be at the remembering stage and the goal might be “ Child will demonstrate an increase in literacy as measured by their ability to define what is meant by character and setting utilizing the Story Grammar Marker as shown by their ability to fill in the character and setting on a graphic organizer with 90% accuracy across three sessions.”

California Manual
http://www.csha.org/pdf/SLPGoalsandObjectivesupdate.pdf

New York speech and language therapist blog that talks about how to write a goal and how to apply them to the common core.
http://ps20speechandlanguage.wordpress.com/2011/11/23/curriculum-based-therapy/

Some other examples:
By the end of the semester, Pat will improve his social pragmatic skills as evidenced by his ability to respond to 75% of joint attention bids within 10 seconds during a structured activity as well as initiate spontaneous communication one time during each session.


http://www.interventioncentral.org/sites/default/files/rti_riot_icel_data_collection.pdf
This site has both the RIOT and ICEL matrix which is helpful for thinking about which goals to use.


http://www.wrightslaw.com/bks/feta2/ch12.ieps.pdf
Great chapter of book about how to write goals and what not to write

http://www.knpdarchives.org/fita/dokumenti/bettergoals.pdf
Good article on writing goals

http://sww.esc3.net/cms/lib/TX00001506/Centricity/Domain/14/Handout%201_HierarchyCueingPrompting.pdf
Hierarchy cueing


http://www.wrightslaw.com/bks/feta2/ch12.ieps.pdf
Good description of the entire process

Excellent article on goal writing:
http://blog.asha.org/2013/09/10/tricks-to-take-the-pain-out-of-writing-treatment-goals/

Medical goals
http://www.asha.org/uploadedFiles/SLP-Medical-Review-Guidelines.pdf


Excellent article on goal writing and rubrics
http://www.uwyo.edu/comdis/_files/docs/tuashagoalsprogresstalk.pdf


Common core goals
http://thethriftyslp.blogspot.com/p/common-core-language.html

http://ps20speechandlanguage.wordpress.com/2011/11/23/curriculum-based-therapy/?blogsub=confirming#blog_subscription-3

This has a great article on how to have your goals match the common core standards.